Top 10 Hardest Mineral in the World

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Top 10 Hardest Mineral in the World

10. Talc -Talc is a mineral composed of hydrate magnesium silicate and widely known as talcum powder. According to the Mohs hardness scale it is the softest mineral and easily scratched by nail and can be cut by knife. It is widely used in many industries such as paper making, paint and coating, rubber, electric cable, cosmetics, ceramic etc.

9. Gypsum -Gypsum is a sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dehydrate and widely used as fertilizer. Gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand because it dissolves over time in water. It is deposited from lake and sea water and volcanic vapors. It is widely used in soil conditioner, tofu (soy bean curd) and as alabaster, a material for sculpture.

8. Calcite -Calcite is a carbonate mineral which is the most stable form of calcium carbonate. Calcite is transparent to opaque and has Mohs hardness scale of 3 and a specific gravity of 2.71. It is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble and a common constituent of sedimentary rocks and limestone. Calcite is found in spectacular form in the Snowy river cave in New Mexico.

7. Fluorite -Fluorite is a colorful mineral and used as ornaments. It is found in many countries, including China, Germany, Austria, England and Mexico. Fluorite may be drilled into beads and used in jewelry. It is also commonly used as a window material for both infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths. Lenses are made up of Fluorite because it has low dispersion.

6. Apatite -Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals and used in a biological micro environmental system. The primary use of the Apatite is in the manufacturer of fertilizer and also used as a gemstone. It is a proposed host material for the storage of nuclear waste and found in Canada, Germany, India, Madagascar, Norway, South Africa and Spain.

5. Orthoclase Feldspar -Orthoclase Feldspar is a common constituent of granite which forms igneous rocks. They are of two types, the higher temperature polymorph of Orthoclase is called sanidine which is rapidly cooled volcanic rocks found in Germany. The other one is a lower temperature polymorph of Orthoclase is called microline which is found in Switzerland. It is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses.

4. Quartz -Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the earth's crust. There are many different varieties of Quartz found in Europe. It is an essential constituent of granite and other igneous rocks. Quartz crystal have piezoelectric properties and widely use as the crystal oscillator. And the Quartz clock is a familiar device using this mineral.

3. Topaz -Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine and its crystal are mostly pyramid in shape. Pure topaz is colorless and transparent, but it is usually tinted by impurities and typical topaz is yellow, pale gray, reddish gray or blue brown. A large amount of topaz is found in Sri Lanka, Germany, Norway, Nigeria, Australia, Japan, Brazil, Mexico and United States.

2. Corundum -Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide with traces of iron, chromium and titanium. Pure corundum is transparent but it can have different colors when impurities are present. The red corundum is widely known as ruby and used as jewelry and all other colors are called sapphire. It is mined in Zimbabwe, Russia, Sri Lanka and India

1. Diamond -Diamond is the hardest known natural material according to Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Diamond hardness depends on its purity and the hardest diamond can only be scratched by other diamonds. Some blue color diamonds are natural semiconductors, some are electrical insulators and rests are electric conductors. Approximately 26000 kg of diamonds are mined annually, out of which 50% diamonds originate from Central and Southern Africa.


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