MathHistory13: The number theory revival

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After the work of Diophantus, there was something of a lapse in interest in pure number theory for quite some while. Around 1300 Gersonides developed the connection between the Binomial theorem and combinatorics, and then in the 17th century the topic was again taken up, notably by Fermat, and then by Euler, Lagrange, Legendre and Gauss. We discuss several notable results of Fermat, including of course his famous last theorem, also his work on sums of squares, Pell's equation, primes, and rational points on curves. The rational parametrization of the Folium of Descartes is shown, using the technique of Fermat.
We also state Fermat's little theorem using the modular arithmetic language introduced by Gauss.

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number theory Mahematics
number theory, math

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