Future Earth 2017

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The Earth is the third planet from the Sun. Fifth in size among all the planets of the solar system. It is also the largest in diameter, mass and density among the terrestrial planets.
Sometimes referred to as the World, the Blue Planet, sometimes Terra (from the Latin Terra). The only known to the person at the moment the body of the solar system in particular and the universe in general, inhabited by living organisms.
Scientific evidence indicates that the Earth was formed from the solar nebula about 4.54 billion years ago and shortly thereafter acquired its only natural satellite, the Moon. Presumably life appeared on Earth about 4.25 billion years ago, that is, soon after its occurrence. Since then, the Earth's biosphere has significantly changed the atmosphere and other abiotic factors, resulting in the quantitative growth of aerobic organisms, as well as the formation of the ozone layer, which, together with the Earth's magnetic field, weakens the life-threatening solar radiation, thereby preserving the conditions for the existence of life on Earth. Radiation caused by the Earth's crust since the time of its formation has significantly decreased due to the gradual disintegration of radionuclides in it. The Earth's crust is divided into several segments, or tectonic plates, which move along the surface at speeds of the order of several centimeters per year. The study of the composition, structure and regularities of the Earth's development is carried out by the science of geology.

Approximately 70.8% of the planet's surface is occupied by the World Ocean [23], the rest of the surface is occupied by continents and islands. On the continents are rivers, lakes, groundwaters and ice, together with the oceans, they form a hydrosphere. Liquid water, necessary for all known life forms, does not exist on the surface of any of the known planets and planetoids of the solar system, except the Earth. The poles of the Earth are covered with an ice shell, which includes the sea ice of the Arctic and the Antarctic ice sheet.

Comparison of the sizes of the terrestrial planets (from left to right): Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
The inner regions of the Earth are quite active and consist of a thick, very viscous layer called the mantle, which covers the liquid outer core, which is the source of the Earth's magnetic field, and the inner solid core, presumably consisting of iron and nickel. The physical characteristics of the Earth and its orbital motion allowed life to survive for the last 3.5 billion years. According to various estimates, the Earth will maintain conditions for the existence of living organisms for another 0.5 - 2.3 billion years.

The Earth interacts (attracted by gravitational forces) with other objects in space, including the Sun and the Moon. The Earth turns around the Sun and makes around it a full revolution in about 365.26 solar days - a sidereal year. The Earth's rotation axis is inclined 23.44 ° relative to the perpendicular to its orbital plane, this causes seasonal changes on the surface of the planet with a period of one tropical year - 365.24 solar days. The day is now about 24 hours. The moon began its orbit in orbit around the Earth about 4.53 billion years ago. The gravitational impact of the Moon on Earth is the cause of the occurrence of ocean tides. Also, the Moon stabilizes the slope of the earth's axis and gradually slows down the rotation of the Earth. Some theories suggest that the fall of asteroids led to significant changes in the environment and the Earth's surface, causing, in particular, mass extinctions of various species of living beings.

The planet is home to millions of species of living beings, including humans. The territory of the Earth is divided into 195 independent states, which interact with each other. Human culture has formed many ideas about the structure of the universe - such as the concept of a flat Earth, the geocentric system of the world and the Gaia hypothesis, according to which the Earth is a single superorganism.

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